Added: Tymeka Constable - Date: 21.12.2021 19:03 - Views: 35147 - Clicks: 1244
Political Geography of the UK with special reference to healthcare issues. It does not include It is a complex situation involving jealously guarded cultural, religious and linguistic differences that have, over many centuries, given rise to various armed conflicts, insurgencies and political assassinations.
Yet, in the face of an external threat, unity asserts itself. The executive functions are being devolved in line with the transfer of legislative powers. The objective of devolution is to relieve societal stress in situations where greater self-determination is demanded, without going as far as full secession and the break-up of the United Kingdom.
The recent referendum on the subject of full independence for Scotland didn't go for independence, but this probably isn't the end of the story. So what is the relevance of all this to circumcision? One of the powers already devolved is the administration of healthcare. It would, for example, be entirely possible for the different circlist uk to adopt different policies regarding the promotion and funding of elective circumcision.
Any pressure for change must, therefore, be applied in more than one forum.
Even at ministerial level, there is no single point of contact applicable to the whole of the UK in respect of health issues. Of particular relevance has been the transfer of Public Health issues such as stop-smoking campaigns from the NHS to Local Authorities. Nothing new here; it merely restores the situation that prevailed up until Notable past successes achieved by local government include proper sewage disposal and universal smallpox innoculation.
The change has the potential to bring about local promotion of circumcision as a medical prophylaxis issue — if Councils can be persuaded of the benefits. Prior to the introduction of the National Health Service after World War 2 ie the late s people had to pay for all their medical needs including the birth of a baby and circumcision of a boy, if required.
Unlike in the US, circumcision was not done within the first few days after birth, but later during the first year of life. Pre-NHS most mothers gave birth at home or in maternity nursing homes circlist uk than hospitals, so there were no facilities for neonatal circumcision.
Even today there is a reluctance in the UK to circumcise before the age of 3 or 4 months. Circumcising a son therefore meant extra cost, and an additional visit to the doctor. Circumcision was seen as circlist uk luxury, and to the less well-off it often seemed an unnecessary expense. So ever since it became particularly popular in Victorian times, circumcision was always practiced more by the middle and upper classes. This was partly because they could afford it, partly because they were more educated and hence knew better of the benefits and partly because of peer pressure.
Failing to circumcise was not doing the right thing by their son. This was a marked contrast to egalitarian Australiawhere circumcision was routine for everyone, and parents would have to specifically state if they didn't want their son done. Then, inDouglas Gairdner  wrote a paper in the British Medical Journal attacking routine circumcision. He studied the development of the foreskin and reported that it was not normally retractable until around age 3, so that no diagnosis of phimosis could be made until that age.
That isn't an argument against prophylactic curcumcision, though. He also claimed that circlist uk 16 boys a year were dying from circumcision under age 5 12 under age 1. That is a very much higher death rate than any subsequent study has found though still only a tenth of the death rate from penile cancer at the time. These figures are very rubbery, however. His deaths come from official records, where the category is "circumcision or phimosis" - so it also includes those who died from not being circumcised.
Two other factors are relevant. Only one of his study years was truly post-war, and in that year the death rate plummeted. So bomb damaged hospitals and absence of doctors could have been a major factor. Also, he said that most deaths that had come to his attention were attributable to anaesthesia.
In the US and Australia, with true neonatal circumcisions, general anaesthesia was never used. When the National Health Service was formed, all necessary surgery became free of charge. Hospital birth also became the norm. However, circumcision had never been part of the birth 'package' so parents wanting it were not expecting it in the maternity ward. The combination of Gairdner's very influential paper and salaried NHS doctors who didn't earn anything from the operation meant that in practice, postparents didn't find it easy to get prophylactic circumcision, and rates declined.
Whilst the NHS in a small of areas offers a circumcision service to meet demand from the Moslem population, anecdotal reports suggest that non-Muslim parents seeking circumcision for their sons are often turned away. Feedback from our readers would be much appreciated on this - if you have any information. Private medicine has already stepped in to fill the vacuum and many circumcision clinics are operating around the UK.
The fieldwork took place circlist uk May and November as part of a much wider survey of sexual matters in the UK. This, by the way, is the survey that Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher tried to stop, the very existence of the research proposal being the subject of a Cabinet Meeting reported in The Sunday Times 10th September Both the present and former editors belong to this cohort, as do many of our contributors.
One point that the present editor noticed while growing up was that Catholics were more likely to be circumcised than Anglicans, and the following table bears this out. The great traditional English Catholic public schools such as Ampleforth and Downside were largely foreskin-free zones. The table of ethnicities below does little to illuminate the situation. In the largest Asian population group in the UK was from the Indian subcontinent, so we are presumably seeing Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Muslim Indians as circumcised, and Hindus and Sikhs as not.
Other sources give similar figures. Writing inGavin Weightmann  quotes two relevant studies. Stuart Carne, a London GP, reported in that This broke down to The fragmented nature of circlist uk NHS statistical record-keeping system makes it difficult to obtain national data about rates of hospital circumcision. At a purely financial level, there would appear to be scope for studying whether offering prophylactic infant circumcision would be cheaper overall, especially considering the of infant UTIs it would prevent.
The third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, carried out between andgives a snapshot of the population 30 years after the first survey Wellings et al. Homfray et al. Overall The table below shows the breakdown by age. Note that the younger groups show a higher circumcision rate than in the survey, so that the overall trend is upwards.
Also, the demographic born between andwhich then showed a As before, the circlist uk and religious breakdowns are not terribly informative, though the huge increase in circumcision rate among those identifying as 'black' is noteworthy. It is also interesting that Christians are more likely to be circumcised than those with no religion.
These figures all refer to sexually experienced men up to the age of So this is the best snapshot we have of the status of circumcision in the UK today. It will only cover Great Britain - ie excluding Northern Ireland. Each circumcising country tends to have its characteristic style.
In the USA it is the Gomco, with its characteristic prominent 'perfect circle' scar. Back in the midth century, most circumcisions in the UK were done by the 'tug and chop' method. The skin is pulled forward and cut in front of the glans. The outer skin retracts back down the shaft and the inner foreskin is pushed back to meet it. In a baby no sutures are used. The end is a bare glans, with plenty of loose skin on the shaft.
In erection the scar will be half-way down the circlist uk, very inconspicuous and somewhat irregular. The skin will still have a centimetre or two of totally free mobility. It is very easy indeed to masturbate that sort of penis, giving the lie to the idea that circumcision hinders masturbation.
Sometimes more skin was left, so that the glans was partially covered before puberty, though it always emerged as the boy grew up. However there are also plenty of reports of a minority with tight circumcisions, some of them dead tight, Australian-style. These were probably done by the technique described in by the distinguished surgeon Sir Willian Whitla  : The elongated prepuce is pulled forwards and clamped by a pair of forceps applied The lining membrane of the remaining prepuce is next slit up the dorsal aspect of the glans almost as far as the corona and neatly trimmed, after which the remaining narrow frill or collar of mucous membrane is stitched When the original incision is skilfully made, a pointed piece of skin remains, which can be sutured over the triangular area below the frenum.
That sort of circumcision is not so easy to masturbate and maybe that was Whitla's intention in But nature always found a way! Schoolboys, at least back in those days, were very keen to investigate the different sorts of penis. Circumcised ones were called roundhe, after the Parliamentary side in the Civil War who had close-cropped hair, while foreskinned boys were cavaliers, after their long-haired Royalist opponents.
The differences between different examples of the same sort were equally interesting, and this is all delightfully described in Brian Circlist uk book "The Hand-Reared Boy" see our Reviews. Something that surprises many people in northern European countries is that in Britain it is considered normal that the foreskin of circlist uk natural uncircumcised man does not cover the glans.
Back in the 18th century John Cleland, in his erotic novel Fanny Hill, describes the hero's penis as "half-capt" when flaccid after his first intercourse with Fanny who had, rather improbably, remained a virgin up to that point.
Fast forward to when the Army doctor T. Osmond reported on 1, men he had examined . Forward another 20 years. Only 9 out of men had a covered glans, though a further 18 had foreskins which could cover the glans except that they wore it permanently retracted. Is this atypical, and if so, why? Certainly the Editor's own survey in Australia found many more covered knobs see our surveys. So why are some northern countries different?
It seems unlikely that there is any racial difference within the melting pot of modern Europe, so the difference must be cultural. In the UK it was the custom for parents to or nannies in more affluent families to retract a baby's foreskin when bathing him, and later to encourage the boy to do the same every bathtime. By age 9 or 10 retraction became a competitive matter among schoolboys, and you were a loser if you couldn't get it back.
Certainly it was the ones which were easily retracted before puberty which tended not have coverage afterwards. Britain's takeover of India is surely unique in that a trading company became de facto rulers of a huge country for over years. India at that time was ruled by the Mughal empire which was Muslim and spoke Farsi Persian. The Portuguese, Dutch and French had similar ideas - in the end the Dutch settled on the East Indies present day Indonesia but there was rivalry, and sometimes warfare, between British, French and Portuguese interests.
The monopoly of the 'old' or 'London' company was challenged and in Parliament revoked the monopoly and the 'new' or 'English' company the English Company Trading to the East Indies set up in opposition. The monopoly was back, and the powerful new company established a private army and by became effectively the rulers of India, a situation which continued until the British Government took over in One factor in this takeover was a collapse in the Mughal Empire.
For three centuries the Muslim Mughal rulers had exercised a benign and tolerant rule, allowing all faiths to continue, but the rule of 'Aurangzeyb changed this. He was a mean-spirited and possibly dim-witted zealot who attempted to convert all Circlist uk to Islam.
With his death in the Mughal rule began to fall apart, creating openings for outsiders. That is circlist uk background. The that follows is largely based on "The rape of India - a biography of Robert Clive"  by Circlist uk Edwardes, the nom de plume of a writer of erotica, but well-researched erotica, whose avowed intent is to put the sex back into history. It is hard to dispute the merits of this, and he cites more sources than many other historians.
Circumcision had many advantages for the East India Company. Circumcised men were more likely to be accepted as envoys at the Mughal Court than uncircumcised men, a fact first proved in the 17th century when two English musicians, Lancelot Circlist uk spinet and Robert Tully cornet sought to bring English music to the Mughal court.
They were only accepted after being circumcised and given Muslim names, after which they were handsomely rewarded and became valuable intermediaries between the EIC and the Court. In strife broke out betweem the EIC and Emperor 'Aurangzeyb over the extortionate jizeh uncircumcision tax imposed on infidels. Josiah Child, director od the EIC, sent two of his top negotiators to intervene.
Abraham Navarro, the interpreter, was Jewisj and George Weldon, the chief negotiator, was also circumcised. So satisfyed that we were thus sanctifyed, he ordere'd our Hands to be untyed, and treated us as Honourable Men. Nobody writes sentences like that anymore The end result was that in an agreement was struck that the EIC could trade tax-free for an annual fee of 30, rupees.
Circumcision was clearly a valuable negotiating tool, and many of the early Merchant Adventurers had themselves done for this reason. From the authorities of the London Company at Fort St George had ordered that "All Cadettes shall be bodily examined, as in ye Military Services, agaynst any irregular condition of ye Genitories.
Two of the members of the council which enacted this rule were themselves circumcised. Circumcision reduced the risk of infection, whether from the steamy tropical climate or from sexual encounters.Circlist uk
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